Publications by Topic

A full list of updated publications is available at Google Scholar.
Last updated: 2019

Table of Contents

Patents Awarded

  1. US Patent # 9,751,785 Photocatalytic reduction of oxo-anions, Doudrick, K., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. (September 5, 2017)
  2. US Patent # 9,878,320 Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Metal Dioxide Based Hybrid Media, Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. (January 1, 2018)
  3. US Patent # 10,435,311 Low temperature synthesis of aluminum hydr(oxide) inside porous media, Hristovski, K., Markovski, J., Westerhoff, P., Sinha, S. (October 8, 2019)
  4. US Patent 10,427,194 Microwave-Enabled Thermal Remediation of Organic Chemical Contaminated Soils using Dielectric Nanomaterials as Additives, Westerhoff, P., Dahlen, P., and Apul, O. , (10/1/2019).
  5. US Patent  Additive-Amplified Microwave Pretreatment of Wastewater Sludge, Apul, O., Dahlen, P., Westerhoff, P. U.S. patent number of 10,590,020 (March 17, 2020)
  6. US Patent # 10,793,449 B2  FIBER – OPTIC INTEGRATED MEMBRANE REACTOR, Westerhoff, P., Hristovski, K., Sinha, S. (Oct. 6, 2020)
  7. US Patent 10,787,374 B2 SILVER – IMPREGNATED TWO – DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES FOR BROMIDE REMOVAL, Perreault, F., Westerhoff, P., Apul, O., Sinha, S. (Sept. 29, 2020)
  8. US Patent. 2020/0290014 A1 NANO – ENABLED ACTIVATED CARBON BLOCKS TO ENABLE REMOVAL OF OXYANIONS FROM WATER, Cai, Z., Mollema, S.A., Atkinson, A.J., Hristovski, K.D., Markovski, J.S., Westerhoff, P. (September 17, 2020)

Nanomaterial Detection and Exposure

  1. Stability and Removal of Water Soluble CdTe Quantum Dots in Water,  Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yongsheng; Westerhoff, Paul; Crittenden, John, Environmental Science and Engineering Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 :1 :321-325 (2008)
  2. “Particle Size and Chemical Effects on Contact Filtration Performance”, J.E. Tobiason, G.S. Johnson, P. Westerhoff. ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 119:3:520-539 (1993).
  3. Stability of Commercial Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Water, Yang Zhang, Yongsheng Chen, Kiril Hristovski, Paul Westerhoff, John C Crittenden, Water Research, 42:8-9:2204-2212 (2008)
  4. Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics, Benn, T. and Westerhoff, P. Environmental Science and Technology, 42:11:4133-4139 (2008)
  5. Quantification of C60 Fullerene Concentrations in Water, Chen, Z., Westerhoff, P., Herckes, P., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27:9:1852-1859 (2008)
  6. Koeneman, B., Zhang, Y., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P., Chen, Y., Crittenden, J.C., Capco, D.G., Experimental approach for an in vitro toxicity assay with non-aggregated quantum dots, Toxicology in Vitro, 23: 955-962 (2009)
  7. Kiser, M.A., Westerhoff, P., Benn, T., Wang, Y., Pérez-Rivera, J., Hristovski, K. “Titanium Nanomaterial Removal and Release from Wastewater Treatment Plants”, Environmental Science and Technology, 43:17:6757-6763 (2009)
  8. Benny F Pycke; Troy M Benn; Paul Westerhoff; Rolf U Halden, “Strategies for quantifying C60 fullerenes in biological samples and implications for toxicological Studies”, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 30:1:44-57 (2011)
  9. Chao, T-C, Song, G., Hansmeier, N., Westerhoff, P., Herckes, P., Halden RU, “Characterization and LC-MS/MS based quantification of hydroxylated fullerenes”, Analytical Chemistry, 83:5:1777-1783 (2011)
  10. Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., Westerhoff, P., Crittenden, J. Impact of Natural Organic Matter and Divalent Cations on the Stability of Aqueous Nanoparticles, Water Research, 43:17:4249-4257 (2009)
  11. Koeneman, B.A., Zhang, Y., Westerhoff, P., Chen, Y.,  Crittenden, J.C. and Capco, D.  Toxicity and cellular responses of intestinal cells exposed to titanium dioxide. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 26:225-238 (2010).
  12. Wang, C., Shang, C., Westerhoff, P. “Quantification of fullerene aggregate nC60 in wastewater by high performance chromatography with UV-vis spectroscopic and mass spectrometric detection”, Chemosphere, 80:334-339 (2010).
  13. Kiser, M.A., Ryu, Ho., Jang, H., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P.“Biosorption of nanoparticles on heterotrophic wastewater biomass”, Water Research, 44:14:4105-4114 (2010)
  14. Benn, T., Cavanagh, B., Hristovski, K., Posner, J.D., Westerhoff, P. “The Release of (Nano)Silver from Consumer Products Used in the Home”, J. Environmental Quality, 39:6:1875-1882 (2010).
  15. Benn, T.M., Pycke, B.F.G., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P., Halden, R.U., “Evaluation of extraction methods for the quantification of aqueous fullerenes in urine”, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 399:4:1631-1639 (2011)
  16. Benn, T., Westerhoff, P., Herckes, P. “Detection of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in commercial cosmetics” Environmental Pollution, 159:5:1334-1342 (2011)
  17. Westerhoff, P., Song, G., Hristovski, K., Kiser, M.A. “Occurrence and Removal of Titanium at Full Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants: Implications for TiO2 Nanomaterials”, J. Environmental Monitoring, 13:5:1195-1203 (2011)
  18. Mahmood, T., Saddique, M., Naeem, A., Westerhoff, P., Mustafa, S. Alum, A. “Comparison of Different Methods for the PZC Determination of NiO”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 50:10017-10023 (2011)
  19. Hristovski, K.D., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J.D. “Octanol-water Partitioning of Engineered Nanomaterials”, J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A – Toxic/Hazardous Substance & Environmental Engineering, 46:636-647 (2011)
  20. Reed, R., Ladner, D., Higgins, C., Westerhoff, Pi., Ranville, J. “Solubility of nano-ZnO in environmentally and biologically important matrices”, J. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (accepted March 2011)
  21. Hou, W-C., Moghadam, B., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J. “Distribution of Fullerene Nanomaterials between Water and Model Biological Membranes”, Langmuir  27:11899-11905 (2011)
  22. Wang, Y., Westerhoff, P., Hristovski, K. “Fate and biological effects of silver, titanium dioxide, and C60 (fullerene) nanomaterials during simulated wastewater treatment processes” J. of Hazardous Materials, 201-202: 16-22 (2012)
  23. Reed, R., Ladner, D., Higgins, C., Westerhoff, Pi., Ranville, J. “Solubility of nano-ZnO in environmentally and biologically important matrices”, J. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31:1:93-99 (2012)
  24. Hou, W., Moghadam, B., Corredor, C., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J. “Distribution of Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles between Water and Lipid Bilayers as Model Cell Membranes”, Environ. Sci. and Tech., 46:3:1869-1876 (2012)
  25. Weir, A., Westerhoff, P., Fabricius, L., Hristovski, K., von Goetz, N. “ Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products”, Environ. Sci. and Tech., 46:4:2242-2250 (2012)
  26. Kiser, M., Ladner, D., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Nanomaterial transformation and association with fresh and freeze-dried wastewater activated sludge: Implications for testing protocol and environmental fate”, Environmental Science and Technology (accepted February 2012) DOI:10.1021/es300339x
  27. Reed, R.B., Higgins, C.P., Westerhoff, P., Tadjiki, S., Ranville, J.F. “Overcoming challenges in analysis of polydisperse metal-containing nanoparticles by single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry”, J. of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27:1093-1100 (2012)
  28. Ladner, D. Steele, M., Weir, A., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Functionalized nanoparticle interactions with polymeric membranes”, J. of Hazardous Materials, 211-212:288-295 (2012)
  29. Mitrano, D.M., Barber, A., Bednar, A., Westerhoff, P., Higgins, C.P., Ranville, J.F. “Silver nanoparticle characterization using single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) and asymmetrical flow field fractionation ICP-MS (AF4-ICP-MS), J. Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27:1131-1142 (2012)
  30. Gray, E.P., Bruton, T.A., Higgins, C.P., Halden, R.U., Westerhoff, P., Ranville, J.F. “Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Mixtures: A Comparison of Hydrodynamic Chromatography (HDC) and Asymmetrical Flow Field-flow Fractionation (AF4) Coupled to ICP-MS” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27:1532-1539 (2012)
  31. Pycke, B., Chao, T-C, Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P., Halden, R. “Beyond nC60: Strategies to identify in aquatic and biological samples transformation products of fullerene oxidation”, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry10.1007/s00216-012-6090-8 (2012)
  32. Plata, D., Ferguson, L., Westerhoff, P. “Express it in numbers: efforts to quantify carbon nanotubes in environmental matrices advance”,  A Viewpoint in Environmental Science and Technology 46: 12243-12245 (2012).
  33. Doudrick, K., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “Detection of Carbon Nanotubes in Environmental Matrices Using Programmed Thermal Analysis”, Environmental Science and Technology 46: 12246-12253 (2012)
  34. Westerhoff, P. and Nowack, B. “Searching for Global Descriptors of Engineered Nanomaterial Fate and Transport in the Environment”, Accounts of Chemical Research , 46:3:844-853 DOI: 10.1021/ar300030n (2013)
  35. Doudrick, K., Corson, N., Oberdorster, G., Elder, A.C., Herckes, P., Halden, R.U., Westerhoff, P. “Extraction and Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Biological Matrices with Application to Rat Lung Tissue”, ACS Nano, 7:10: 8849-8856 DOI: 10.1021/nn403302s (2013)
  36. Yang, Y., Doudrick, K., Bi, X., Hristovski, K., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P., Kaegi, R., “Characterization of Food-Grade Titanium Dioxide: Presence of Nano-Sized Particles”, Environmental Science and Technology, 48:11:6391-6400 (2014)
  37. Singh, G., Stephan, C., Westerhoff, P., Carlander, D., Duncan, T.V. “Measurement Methods to Detect, Characterize, and Quantify Engineered Nanomaterials in Foods” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12078 13:4:693-704 (2014)
  38. Bi, X, Lee, S, Ranville, J.F., Sattigeri, P., Spanias, A., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “Quantitative resolution of nanoparticle sizes using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the K-means clustering algorithm”, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 29:9:1630 – 1639 (2014)
  39. Lee, S., Xiangyu, B., Reed, R., Ranville, J., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “Nanoparticle size detection limits by single particle ICP-MS for 40 elements” Environmental Science and Technology, 48:17:10291-10300 (2014)
  40. Silva, R., Doudrick, K., Franzi, L., TeeSy, C., Anderson, D., Wu, Z., Mitra, S., Vu, V., Dutrow, G., Evans, J., Westerhoff, P., Van Winkle, L., Raabe, O., Pinkerton, K. “ Instillation versus Inhalation of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Exposure-Related Health Effects, Clearance, and the Role of Particle Characteristics”, ACS Nano, 8:9:8911-8931(2014).
  41. Szakal C.; Roberts SM.; Westerhoff P.; Bartholomaeus A.; Buck N.; Illuminato I.; Canady R.; Rogers M.  Measurement of Nanomaterials in Foods: Integrative Consideration of Challenges and Future Prospects. ACS Nano, 8:4: 3128-3135 (2014)
  42. Doudrick, K., Nosaka, T., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “Quantification of Graphene and Graphene Oxide in Complex Organic Matrices”, Environmental Science: Nano 2:1:60-67(2015)
  43. Corredor, C., Borysiak, M., Wolfer, J., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J. “Colorimetric Detection of Catalytic Reactivity of Nanoparticles in Complex Matrices”, Environmental Science & Technology, 49: 3611-3618 (2015)
  44. Tiede, K., Hanssen, S.F., Westerhoff, P., Fern, G.J., Hankin, S.M., Aitken, R.J., Chaudhry, Q. Boxall, A. “How important is drinking water exposure for the risks of engineered nanoparticles to consumers?”, Nanotoxicology, DOI: 10.3109/17435390.2015.1022888 (2015)
  45. Montaño, M.D., Majestic, B.J., Jämting, A., K., Westerhoff, P., Ranville, J.F. “ Methods for the detection and characterization of silica colloids by microsecond spICP-MS”, Analytical Chemistry (in-press April 2016)
  46. Yang, Y., Faust, J., Schoepf, J., Hristovski, K., Capco, D.G., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “ Survey of Food-grade Silica Dioxide Nanomaterial Occurrence, Characterization, Human Gut Impacts and Fate across Its Lifecycle”, Science of the Total Environment (in-press; Feb 2016)
  47. Petersen, E., Flores-Cervantes, D., Bucheli, T., Elliott, L., Fagan, J., Gogos, A., Hanna, S., Kaegi, R., Mansfield, E., Montoro Bustos, A., Plata, D., Reipa, V., Westerhoff, P., Winchester, M. R., “Quantification of carbon nanotubes in environmental matrices: Current capabilities, case studies, and future prospects”, Environmental Science and Technology (in-press April 2016)
  48. Holden, P.A., Gardea-Torresdey, J., Klaessig, F., Turco, R.F., Mortimer, M., Hund-Rinke, K., Cohen Hubal, E.A., Avery, D., Barcelo, D., Berha, R., Cohen, Y., Deydier-Stephan, L., Ferguson, P.L. Fernandes, T.F., Herr Harthorn, B., Henderson, W.M., Hoke, R.A., Hristozov, D., Johnston, J.M., Kane, A.B., Kapustka, L., Keller, A.A., Lenihan, H.S., Lovell, W., Murphy, C.J., Nisbet, R.M., Petersen, E.J., Salinas, E.R., Scheringer, M., Sharma, M., Speed, D.E., Sultan, Y., Westerhoff, P., White, J.C., Wiesner, M.R., Wong, E.M., Xing, B., Horan, M.S., Godwin, H.A., Nel, A.E., “Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials”, Environmental Science and Technology (in-press May 2016)
  49. Reed, R.B., Faust, J.J., Yang, Y., Doudrick, K., Capco, D.G., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Characterization of nanomaterials in metal colloid-containing dietary supplement drinks and assessment of their potential interactions after ingestion”, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2:7:1616-1624 (2014)
  50. Faust, J.J., Doudrick, K., Yu, Y., Westerhoff, P., Capco, D.G. “Food grade titanium dioxide disrupts intestinal brush border microvilli in vitro independent of sedimentation”, Cell Biology and Toxicology, 30:3:169-188 (2014)
  51. Kidd, J., Bi, Y., Hanigan, D., Herckes, P., Westerhoff “Yttrium Residues in MWCNT Enable Assessment of MWCNT Removal During Wastewater Treatment”, Nanomaterials, doi:10.3390/nano9050670, 9:5:670:1-14(2019)
  52. Lankone, R., Challis, K., Pourzahedi, L., Durkin, D., Bi, Y., Wang, Y., Garland, M., Brown, F., Hristovski, K., Tanguay, R., Westerhoff, P., Lowry, G., Gilbertson, L., Ranville, J., Fairbrother, D.H. “Copper release and transformation following natural weathering of nano-enabled pressure-treated lumber”, Science of the Total Environment , 668:234-244 (2019)
  53. Bi., Y., Westerhoff, P. “High-throughput Analysis of Photocatalytic Reactivity of Differing TiO2 Formulations Using 96-well Microplate Reactors”, Chemosphere, 223:275-284 (2019)
  54. Bi, X. and Westerhoff, P. “Ferric reducing reactivity assay with theoretical kinetic modeling uncovers electron transfer schemes of metallic-nanoparticle-mediated redox in water solutions”, Environmental Science: Nano, 6:6:1791-1798 (2019)

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Nanotechnology for the Environment

  1. Hochella, M.F., Mogk, D.W., Ranville, J., Allen, I.C., Luther, G.W., Marr, L.C., Mcgrail, B.P., Murayama, M., Qafoku, N.P., Rosso, K.M., Sahai, N., Schroeder, P.A., Vikesland, P., Westerhoff, P., Yang, Y. “Natural, incidental and engineered nanomaterials and their impacts on the Earth system”, Science, 363:1414 and eaau8299 pages 1-10 (2019)
  2. Mulchandani, A., Atkinson, A., Garcia-Segura, S., Westerhoff, P. “Nanoblocks: A playful method to learn about nanotechnology-enabled water and air treatment”, The Journal of Chemical Education, 96:708-713 (2019)
  3. Heck, K.N., Garcia-Segura, S., Westerhoff, P., Wong, M. “Catalytic Converters for Water Treatment”, Accounts of Chemical Research, 52:906-915 (2019)
  4. “Fabrication of uniform size titanium oxide nanotubes: Impact of current density and solution conditions”, Satoshi Kaneco, Yongsheng Chen, Paul Westerhoff and John C. Crittenden, Scripta Materialia, 56:373-376 (2007)
  5. “A hybrid sorbent utilizing nanoparticles of hydrous iron oxide for arsenic removal from drinking water”, P. Sylvester, P. Westerhoff, T. Moller, M. Badruzzaman and O. Boyd, Environmental Engineering Science, 24(1), 104-112 (2007)
  6. Selecting metal oxide nanomaterials for arsenic removal in fixed bed columns: From nanopowders to aggregated nanoparticle media, Hristovski, K., Baumgardner, A., Westerhoff, P., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147:1-2:265-274 (2007)
  7. Arsenate removal by nanostructured ZrO2 spheres, Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P., Crittenden, J., Olson, L., Environmental Science and Technology, 42:10:3786-3790 (2008).
  8. Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P., Möller, T., Sylvester, P., Condit, W., Mash, H., Simultaneous Removal of Perchlorate and Arsenate by Ion Exchange Media Modified with Nanostructured Iron (Hydr)Oxide, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152:1:397-406 (2008)
  9. “An Approach for Evaluating Nanomaterials for Use as Packed Bed Adsorber Media: A Case Study of Arsenate Removal by Titanate Nanofibers” Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P., Crittenden, J., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 156:604-611 (2008)
  10. Cooper, A.M, Hristovski, K.D., Möller, T., Westerhoff, P., Sylvester, P. “The Effect of Carbon Type on Arsenic and TCE Removal capabilities of Iron (Hydr)Oxide Nanoparticle Impregnated Granular Activated Carbon”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183:381-388 (2010)
  11. Chiu, C., Hristovski, K.D., Dockery, R., Doudrick, K., Westerhoff, P. “Modeling Temperature and Reaction Time Impacts on Hematite Nanoparticle Size during Forced Hydrolysis of Ferric Chloride”, Chemical Engineering Journal (accepted August 2012)
  12. Sharif, F. , Westerhoff, P. and Herckes, P. “Sorption of Trace Organics and Engineered Nanomaterials onto Wetland Plant Material”, Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15:267-274 (2013)
  13. Westerhoff, P., Kiser, A., Hristovski, K., Nanomaterial Removal and Transformation During Biological Wastewater Treatment, Environmental Engineering Science, 30:3:109-117 (2013)
  14. Hou, W-C, Westerhoff, P., Posner, J.D. “Ecological Accumulation of Engineered Nanomaterials: A Review of Current Knowledge” Environmental Science-Processes & Impacts, 15:1:103-122 (2013)  
  15. Moghadam, B., Hou, W.W., Corredor, C., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J. “The Role of Nanoparticle Surface Functionality in the Disruption of Model Cell Membranes” Langmuir, 28:47:16318-16326 (2013)
  16. Corredor, C., Hou, W-C, Klein, S.A., Moghadam, B.Y., Goryll, M. Doudrick, K., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J.D. “Disruption of Model Cell Membranes by Carbon Nanotubes”, Carbon, 60:67-75 (2013)
  17. Negoda, A., Liu, Y., Hou, W.C., Corredor, C., Moghadam, B.Y., Musolff, C., Li, L., Walker, W., Westerhoff, P. Mason, A.J., Duxbury, P., Posner, J.D., Worden, R.M. “Engineered Nanomaterial Interactions with Bilayer Lipid Membranes: A Screening Platform to Assess Nanoparticle Toxicity” J. Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 3:1/2:52- 83(2013)
  18. Chiu, C., Hristovski, K., Huling, S., Westerhoff, P. “In-Situ Regeneration of Saturated Granular Activated Carbon by an Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst”, Water Research, 47:4:1596-1603(2013)
  19. Doudrick, K., Yang, T., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Photocatalytic nitrate reduction in water: Managing the hole scavenger and reaction by-product selectivity”, Applied Catalysis B 136-137:40-47 (2013)
  20. Yang, Y., Bi, X, Westerhoff, P., Hristovski, K. and McLain, J.E. “Engineered Nanomaterials Impact Biological Carbon Conversion in Soils”, Environmental Engineering Science, 31:7:381-392 (2014)
  21. Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Westerhoff, P., Hristovski, K. Jin, V.L., Johnson, M.V., Arnold, J.G., and McLain, J.E. Metal and Nanoparticle Occurrence in Biosolids-Amended Soils, Science of the Total Environment, 485:441-449 (2014)
  22. Speed, D., Westerhoff, P (corresponding author), Sierra-Alvarez, R., Draper, R., Pantano, P., Sravamudhan, S., K-L Chen, Hristovski, K., Herckes, P., Bi, X., Yang, Y., Zeng, C., Otero-Gonzalez, L., Mikoryak, C., Wilson, B.A., Kosaraju, K., Tarannum, M., Crawford, S., Yi, P., Liu, X., Babu, S.V., Moinpour, M., Ranville, J., Montano, M., Corredor, C., Posner, J., and Shadman, F. “Physical, Chemical, and In Vitro Toxicological Characterization of Nanoparticles in Chemical Mechanical Planarization Suspensions Used in the Semiconductor Industry: Towards Environmental Health and Safety Assessments” Environmental Science: Nano, 2:227-244 DOI: 10.1039/C5EN00046G (2015)
  23. Yang, Yu, Wang, Y., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Simultaneous Removal of Nanosilver and Fullerene in Sequencing Batch Reactors for Biological Wastewater Treatment”, Chemosphere, 125:115-121 (2015)
  24. Yang, Y., Yu, Z., Nosaka, T., Doudrick, K., Hristovski, K., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P., “Interaction of Carbonaceous Nanomaterials with Wastewater Biomass”, Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering DOI 10.1007/s11783-015-0787-9, on-line, 9 pages (2015)
  25. Stancl, H.O., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Hexavalent Chromium Removal Using UV-TiO2/Ceramic Membrane Reactor”, Environmental Engineering Science, 32:8:676-683 (2015)
  26. Reed, R.B., Zaikova, T., Barber, A., Simonich, M., Lankone, R., Marco, M., Hrisovski, K., Herckes, P., Passantino, L., Fairbrother, D.H., Tanguay, R., Ranville, J.F., Hutchison, J.E., Westerhoff, P.K. “Potential Environmental Impacts and Antimicrobial Efficacy of Silver- and Nanosilver-Containing Textiles”, Environmental Science and Technology, 50:7:4018-4026 (2016)
  27. Hoogesteijn von Reizenstein, N., Bi, X., Yang, Y., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Morphology, Structure, and Properties of Metal Oxide/Polymer Nanocomposite Electrospun Mats”, Applied Polymer Science (accepted April 2016)
  28. Marks, R., Yang, T., Westerhoff, P., Doudrick, K. “Comparative analysis of the photocatalytic reduction of drinking water oxoanions using titanium dioxide” Water Research (accepted July 2016)
  29. Apul, O., G., Delgado, A.G., Kidd, J., Alam, F., Dahlen, P., Westerhoff, P. “Carbonaceous Nano-Additives Augment Microwave-Enabled Thermal Remediation of Soils Containing Petroleum Hydrocarbons”, Environmental Science: Nano (in-press; August 2016)
  30. Bi, X. and Westerhoff, P. “Adsorption of III/V ions (In(III), Ga(III) and As(V)) to SiO2, CeO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles used in the semiconductor industry”, Environmental Science: Nano (in-press; August 2016)
  31. Lanzarini-Lopes, M., Cruz, B., Garcia-Segura, S., Alum, A., Abbaszadegan, M., Westerhoff, P. “Nanoparticle and transparent polymer coatings enable UV-C side-emission optical fibers for inactivation of Escherichia coli in water” Environmental Science and Technology, 53:18:10880-10887 (2019)
  32. Atkinson, A., Apul, O., Schneider, O., Garcia-Segura, S., Westerhoff, P. “Nanobubble Technologies offer opportunities to improve water treatment”, Accounts of Chemical Research, 52: 1196-1205 (2019)
  33. Lanzarini-Lopes, M., Garcia-Segura, S., Hristovski, K., Messerly, M., Simon, A.J., Westerhoff, P. “Particle-modified polymeric cladding on glass optical fibers enhances radial light scattering”, Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 36:6:1623-1628 (2019)
  34. Tong Zhang, Gregory V. Lowry, Natalie L. Capiro, Jianmin Chen, Wei Chen, Yongsheng Chen, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Daniel W. Elliott, Subhasis Ghoshal, Thilo Hofmann, Heileen Hsu-Kim, Joseph Hughes, Chuanjia Jiang, Guibin Jiang, Chuanyong Jing, Michael Kavanaugh, Qilin Li, Sijin Liu, Bingcai Pan, Tanapon Phenrat, Xiaolei Qu, Xie Quan, Navid Saleh, Peter J. Vikesland, Qiuquan Wang, Paul Westerhoff, Michael S. Wong, Tian Xia, Baoshan Xing, Bing Yan, Lunliang Zhang, Dongmei Zhou, Pedro J. J. Alvarez, “In situ remediation of subsurface contamination: Opportunities and challenges for nanotechnology and advanced materials”, Environmental Science: Nano, 6: 1283-1302 (2019)
  35. Barrera, L.A., Escobosa, A.C., Nevarez, A., Dominguez, N., Banuelos, J.L., Westerhoff, P., Noveron, J.C.  “TiO2-carbon nanoporous composites prepared via ZnO nanoparticle-templated carbonization of glucose adsorb and photodegrade organic pollutants in water”, Journal of Water Process Engineering, 28:331-338 (2019)
  36. Loeb, S., Alvarez, P., Brame, J., Cates, E., Choi, W., Crittenden, J., Dionysiou, D., Li, Q., Puma, G., Quan, X., Sedlak, D., Waite, T.D., Westerhoff, P., Kim, J-H.  “The Technology Horizon for Photocatalytic Water Treatment: Sunrise or Sunset?”, Feature Article Environmental Science and Technology, 53: 2937−2947 (2019)

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Bulk and Trace Organic matter

  1. “Tracking residual DOC using XAD-fractionation and C13-NMR spectroscopy in indirect potable reuse” (1999) Drewes JE, Sprinzl, M, Wendrock, A, Williams, MD, Fox, P, Westerhoff, P, Vom Wasser, 93:95-107.
  2. “Dissolved organic carbon transformations during lab-scale recharge using lagoon-treated wastewater”(2000), P. Westerhoff and M. Pinney, Waste Management, 20:75-83.
  3. “Transformations in Dissolved Organic Carbon Through a Constructed Wetlands”, M. Pinney, P. Westerhoff, L.Baker, Water Research, 34:6:1897-1912 (2000)
  4. “Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: influence of urbanization”, P. Westerhoff, D. Anning, Journal of Hydrology, 236:202-222 (2000).
  5. “Spectofluorometric Characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity”, McKnight, D.M., E.W. Boyer, P.K. Westerhoff, P. Doran, T. Kulbe, D.T. Andersen.  Limnology and Oceanography, 46:1:38-48 (2001).
  6. Esparza-Soto, M., and Westerhoff, P. K. (2001). “Fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular weight distribution of extracellular polymers from full-scale activated sludge biomass.” Water Science and Technology, 43(6), 87-95.
  7. “Assessment and optimization of chemical and physicochemical softening processes.” Chao, P. and Westerhoff, P.. Journal American Water Works Association, 94(3), 109-119 (2002).
  8. Westerhoff, P., Chen, W., and Esparza, M. (2001). “Fluorescence analysis of a standard fulvic acid and tertiary treated wastewater.” Journal of Environmental Quality, 30(6), 2037-2046 (2001).
  9. “Removal of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in surface water treatment plants in Arizona.” Bruce, D., Westerhoff, P., and Brawley-Chesworth, A., Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 51(4), 183-197 (2002).
  10. “Dissolved organic nitrogen in drinking water supplies: A review”, P. Westerhoff and H. Mash, Journal of Water Supply Research and Technology-Aqua, 51:8: 415-448 (2002).
  11. “Biosorption of humic and fulvic acids to live activated sludge biomass”, Esparza-Soto, M. and Westerhoff, P., Water Research,  37:10:2301-2310 (2003).
  12. “HPLC-fluorescence detection and adsorption of bisphenol A, 17b-estrodiol, and 17a-ethynyl estradiol on powered activated carbon”, Yoon, Y., Westerhoff, P., Snyder, S. A., and Esparza, M., Water Research, 37:14:3530-3537 (2003).
  13. “Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products, and Endocrine Disruptors in Water: Implications for the Water Industry”, S. Synder, P. Westerhoff, Y. Yoon, D. Sedlak, Environmental Engineering Science, 20:5:449-469 (2003)
  14. “Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix Zone Integration to Quantify Spectra for Dissolved Organic Matter”, Wen Chen, Paul Westerhoff, Jerry A. Leenheer, and Karl Booksh, Environmental Science and Technology, 37:24:5701-5710 (2003)
  15. “Canal wall brushing – a control measure for taste and odor problems in drinking water supplies in arid environments”,Hu, Q., M. Sommerfeld, L. Baker, P. Westerhoff, Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA, 52:8:545-554 (2003)
  16. Oxidation of Bisphenol A, 17b-Estradiol, 17a-Ethynyl Estradiol and By-product Estrogenicity”  Alum, A., Yoon, Y., Westerhoff, P., and Abbaszadegan, M., Environmental Toxicology, 19:3:257-264 (2004)
  17. “Dissolved organic matter in Arizona reservoirs: end-member analysis”, H. Mash, P. Westerhoff, L. Baker, R. Nieman, Organic Geochemistry, 35:831-843 (2004).
  18. “Biological Attenuation of EDCs and PPCPs: Implications for Water Reuse”, Shane A. Snyder, Joseph Leising, Paul Westerhoff, Yeomin Yoon, Heath Mash, and Brett Vanderford Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 24:2: 108-118 (2004)
  19. “Removal of 17-b Estradiol and Fluoranthene by Nanofiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes”, Y. Yoon, P. Westerhoff, J. Yoon, S. Snyder, ASCE J. Environmental Engineering, 130:12:1460-1467 (2004).
  20.  “Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Measurement Using Dialysis Pretreatment” W. Lee and P. Westerhoff, Environmental Science and Technology, 39(3); 879-884 (2005).
  21. “Endocrine Disruptor, Pharmaceutical, and Personal Care Product Fate During Simulated Drinking Water Treatment Processes”, Westerhoff, P., Snyder, S., Yoon, Y., Wert, E., Environmental Science and Technology, 39:17:6649-6663 (2005).
  22. “Adsorption of 3H-labeled 17-b estradiol on powdered activated carbon”, Y. Yoon, P. Westerhoff, S.A. Snyder, Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 116:1-4:343-351 (2005).
  23. “Characteristic and Reactive of Algae-Produced Dissolved Organic Carbon”  SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Nguyen, M-L., Westerhoff, P., Baker, L., Hu, Q., Esparza-Soto, M., Sommerfeld, M., ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131:11:1574-1582 (2005)
  24. Seasonal Occurrence and Degradation of 2-Methylisoborneol in water supply reservoirs, P. Westerhoff, M. Rodrequez-Hernandez, L.Baker, M.Sommerfeld, Water Research, 39:20:489-4912 (2005)
  25. Nanofiltration and ultrafiltration of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals and personal care products,  Yoon, Y., Westerhoff, P. Snyder, S., Wert, E., Journal of Membrane Science, 270:88-100 (2006).
  26. “Comparison of dissolved-organic-carbon residuals from air- and pure-oxygen-activated-sludge sequencing-batch reactors” M. Esparza-Soto, P. Fox, and P. Westerhoff, Water Environment Research, 78:3:321-329 (2006)
  27. “Transformation of molecular weight distributions of dissolved organic carbon and UV-absorbing compounds at full-scale wastewater-treatment plants”, M. Esparza-Soto and P. Westerhoff, Water Environment Research, 78:3:253-262 (2006)
  28. “An adaptive management strategy using multiple barriers to control taste and odor problems in the metro-Phoenix water supply”, Baker, L.A., Westerhoff, P., Sommerfeld, M., J American Water Works Association, 98:6:113-126 (2006).
  29.  “Occurrence and removal of dissolved organic nitrogen in US water treatment plants”, Lee, W., Westerhoff, P., Esparza-Soto, M., Journal American Water Works Association, 98:10:102-110 (2006).
  30. “Character of organic matter in soil-aquifer treatment systems”, Drewes J.E., Quanrud, D.M., Amy, G.L., Westerhoff, P., Journal of Environmental Engineering –ASCE 132 (11): 1447-1458(2006)
  31. “Dissolved organic nitrogen removal during water treatment by aluminum sulfate and cationic polymer coagulation”, Lee, W., Westerhoff, P., Water Research, 40:3767-3774 (2006).
  32. Leenheer, J. Dotson, A., Westerhoff, P., “Dissolved organic nitrogen fractionation”,  Annals of Environmental Science, Vol 1, 45-56 (2007).
  33. “Removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals by nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membranes”, Y. Yoon, P. Westerhoff, S. Snyder, E. Wert, J. Yoon, Desalination, 202:1-3:16-23 (2007)
  34. Physicochemical Treatment of Three Chemotherapy Drugs: Irinotecan, Tamoxifen, and Cyclophosphamide, Chen, Z., Park, G., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P., J. Advanced Oxidation Technologies , 11:2:254-260 (2008)
  35. Minakata, D., Li, K., Westerhoff, P., Crittenden, J. “Development of a Group Contribution Method To Predict Aqueous Phase Hydroxyl Radical (HO center dot) Reaction Rate Constants”, Environmental Science and Technology, 43:16:6220-6227 (2009)
  36. Westerhoff, P., Moon, H., Minakata, D., Crittenden, J., Oxidation of Organics in Retentates From Reverse Osmosis Wastewater Reuse Facilities, Water Research, 43:16:3992-3998 (2009)
  37. Dotson, A. and Westerhoff, P. Occurrence and Removal of Amino Acids during Water Treatment, J. American Water Works Association, 101:9:101-115 (2009)
  38. Song, G., Wang, J., Chiu, C., Westerhoff, P. “Biogenic Nanoscale Colloids in Wastewater Effluents”, Environmental Science and Technology, 44:21:8216-8222 (2010)
  39. Upadhyay, N., Sun, Q., Allen, J.O., Westerhoff, P., Herckes, P. “Synthetic Musk Emissions from Wastewater Aeration Basins”, Water Research , 45:3: 1071-1078 (2011)
  40. hang, Q., Crittenden, J., Hristovski, K., Hand, D., Westerhoff, P. “User-Oriented Batch Reactor Solutions to the Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model for Different Activated Carbon Dosages”, Water Research, 43:7:1859-1866 (2009)
  41. Torres, C.I., Ramakrishna, S., Chiu, C., Muto, K., Westerhoff, P., Krajmalnik-Brown, R. “Fate of Sucralose during Wastewater Treatment” Environmental Engineering Science, 28:6 (2011) – DOI: 10.1089/ees.2010.0227
  42. Chen, B., Kim, Y. and Westerhoff, P. “Occurrence and Treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen”, Water Research, 45:15:4641-4650 (2011)
  43. Dotson, A. and Westerhoff, P. “Character and treatment of organic colloids in challenging and impacted drinking water sources”, ASCE J. Environ. Engineering, 138:4:393-401 (2012)
  44. Chiu, C-A, Westerhoff, P., Ghosh, A. “GAC Removal of Organic Nitrogen and Other DBP Precursors”, J. American Water Works Assoc. 104:7:41-42 and E406-E415 (2012)
  45. Wang, Y., Chiu, C., Westerhoff, P., Valsaraj, K.T., Herckes, P. Characterization of atmospheric organic matter using size-exclusion chromatography with inline organic carbon detection, Atmospheric Environment, 68:326-332 (2013)
  46.  Upadhyay, N., Sun, Q., Allen, J.O., Westerhoff, P., Herckes, P., “Characterization of aerosol emissions from wastewater aeration basins”, J. of the Air & Waste Management Association 63, 20-26 (2013)
  47. Chen, B., Westerhoff, P., Zhang, L., Zhu, A., Yang, X., Wang, C. “Application of Pretreatment Methods for Reliable Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Analysis in Water – A Review”, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science & Technology, 45:3:249-276 DOI: 10.1080/10643389.2013.852400 (2014)
  48. Zhu, A., Chen, B., Zhang, L., Westerhoff, P. “Improved Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Water via Electrodialysis Pretreatment”, Analytical Chemistry, 87:4:2353-2359 (2015)
  49. Barry, M., Chiu, C-A, Westerhoff, P. “Severe Weather Impacts on Water Quality in Central Arizona”, J. American Water Works Asssoc., 108:4:E221-E231 (2016)
  50. Zhao, H., Wang, L., Hanigan, D., Westerhoff, P., Ni, J. “Novel ion-exchange coagulants remove more low molecular weight organics than traditional coagulants”, Environmental Science and Technology, 50:7:3897-3904 (2016)
  51. An, D., Chen, Y., Gu, B., Westerhoff, P., Hanigan, D., Herckes, P., Fischer, N., Donovan, S., Croue, J., Atkinson, A., “Lower Molecular Weight Fractions of PolyDADMAC Coagulants Disproportionately Contribute to N-nitrosodimethylamine Formation during Water Treatment” Water Research, 150:466-472 (2019)

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Disinfection, Oxidation & DBPs

  1. “Empirically and Theoretically-Based Models for Predicting Brominated Ozonation By-products”, M. Siddiqui, G.Amy, K.Ozekin, P. Westerhoff.  Ozone Science and Engineering, 16:2:157-178 (1994)
  2. “Removal of Bromate after Ozonation during Drinking Water Treatment”, M.Siddiqui, G.Amy, K.Ozekin, W. Zhai, P. Westerhoff. Journal of American Water Works Association, 86:10:81-96 (1994).
  3. “Bromate Formation and Control During Water Treatment”, R. Song, R. Minear, P. Westerhoff, and G. Amy. Environmental Technology , 17:861-868 (1996).
  4. “Empirical Modeling of Bromate Formation During Ozonation of Bromide-Containing Waters”, R. Song, C. Donohue, R. Minear, P. Westerhoff, K. Ozekin, G. Amy. Water Research, 30:5:1161-1168 (1996).
  5. “Modeling and Risk Analysis of Bromate Formation from Ozonation of Bromide-Containing Waters”, R. Minear, R. Song, P. Westerhoff, G. Amy, Water Science and Technology, 34:7-8:79-85 (1996).
  6. “Applications of Ozone Decomposition Models”, P. Westerhoff, G. Amy, R. Song, and R. Minear. Ozone Science and Engineering, 19:1:55-74 (1997).
  7. “Bromate Minimization during ozonation”, R. Song, P. Westerhoff, R. Minear, G. Amy, Journal of American Water Works Association, 89:6:69-78 (1997).
  8. “Numerical Kinetic Models for Bromide Oxidation to Bromine and Bromate”, P. Westerhoff, R. Song, G. Amy, and R. Minear. Water Research, 32:5:1687-1699 (1998).
  9. “NOM’s Role in Bromine and Bromate Formation During Ozonation”, P. Westerhoff, R. Song, G. Amy, and R. Minear. Journal of American Water Works Association, 90:2:82-94 (1998).
  10. “Molecular Ozone and Radical Pathways of Bromate Formation during Ozonation”, Ozekin, K., Westerhoff, P., Amy, G., Siddiqui, M., Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE , 124:5:456-462 (1998).
  11. “Modeling Dissolved Ozone And Bromate Ion Formation In Ozone Contactors”, M. Siddiqui, G. Amy, K. Ozekin, and P. Westerhoff, Journal of Air, Water, and Soil, 108:1-2:1-32 (1998).
  12. “Relationships Between The Structure of Natural Organic Matter and Its Reactivity Towards Molecular Ozone and Hydroxyl Radicals”, P. Westerhoff, G. Aiken, G. Amy, and J. Debroux. Water Research, 33:10:2265-2276 (1999).
  13. “Ozone-Induced Changes in Natural Organic Matter Structure”, P. Westerhoff, J. Debroux, G. Aiken, G. Amy, Ozone Science and Engineering, 21:6:551-570 (1999).
  14. Approaches for Applying Disinfection By-Product Models to Full-Scale Water Treatment Plants: A Case Study in the Paris-Area, France” (2000). P. Westerhoff, J. Debroux, G. Amy, D. Gatel, V. Mary, J. Cavard, Journal of American Water Works Association, 92:3:89-102.
  15. “DOC and DBP precursors in western US watersheds and reservoirs.” Nguyen, M. L., Baker, L. A., and Westerhoff, P., Journal American Water Works Association, 94(5), 98-112 (2002).
  16. “Reactivity of natural organic matter with aqueous chlorine and bromine”, P. Westerhoff, P-F Chao, H. Mash, Water Research, 38:6:1502-1513 (2004).
  17. “Factors affecting formation of haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloropicrin and cyanogen halides during chloramination” Yang X, Shang C, Westerhoff P, Water Research, 41:6:1193-1200 (2007)
  18. “Kinetics of MIB and Geosmin Oxidation during Ozonation”, Westerhoff, P., Nair, B., Peng, P., Ozone Science and Engineering, 28:277-287 (2006)
  19. “Comparison of Colorimetric and Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry Techniques for Chloramine Analysis”, Wontae Lee, Paul Westerhoff , Xin Yang , and Chii Shang, Water Research 41:14: 3097-3102 (2007). Erratum published in 41:18:4271-4271.
  20. Electron Pulse Radiolysis Determination of Hydroxyl Radical Rate Constants with Suwannee River Fulvic Acid and Other Dissolved Organic Matter Isolates, Paul Westerhoff, Stephen P. Mezyk, William J. Cooper, Daisuke Minakata, Environmental Science and Technology, 41:13:4640-4646.
  21. Dissolved organic nitrogen as a precursor for chloroform, dichloroacetonitrile, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, and Trichloronitromethane, W. Lee, P. Westerhoff, J-P Croue, Environmental Science and Technology, 41:15:5485-5490 (2007)
  22. Correlations between organic matter properties and DBP formation during chloramination, X. Yang, C. Shang, W. Lee, P. Westerhoff, C. Fan, Water Research, 42:8:2329-2339 (2008)
  23. Nitrosamine, Dimethylnitramine, and Chloropicrin Formation during Strong Base Anion-Exchange Treatment, Kemper, J.M., Westerhoff, P., Dotson, A., Mitch W., Environmental Science and Technology, 43:2:466-472 (2009).
  24. Chen, B., Nam, S., Westerhoff, P., Krasner, S., Amy, G. “Fate of Effluent Organic Matter and DBP Precursors in an Effluent-Dominated River: A Case Study of Wastewater Impact on Downstream Water Quality”, Water Research, 43:6:1755-1765 (2009).
  25. Krasner, S., Westerhoff, P., Chen, B., Rittmann, B., Nam, S., Amy, G. “Impact of Wastewater Treatment Processes on Organic Carbon, Organic Nitrogen, and DBP Precursors in Effluent Organic Matter”, Environmental Science and Technology, 43:8:2911-2918 (2009)
  26. Lee, W., Westerhoff, P. “Formation of organic chloramines during water disinfection – chlorination versus chloramination”, Water Research, 43:8:2233-2239 (2009)
  27. Dotson, A., Westerhoff, P., Krasner, K., Nitrogen Enriched DOM Isolates and their Affinity to Form Emerging DBPs, Water Science and Technology, 60:1: 135-143(2009)
  28. Krasner, S., Westerhoff, P., Chen, B., Rittmann, B., Amy, G.  The Occurrence of Disinfection Byproducts in USA Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents, Environmental Science and Technology, 43:21:8320-8325 (2009)
  29. Chen, B. and Westerhoff, P. “Predicting Disinfection By-product Formation Potential in Water”, Water Research, 44:13: 3755-3762 (2010)
  30. Chen, B., Westerhoff, P., Lee, W., Krasner, S. Herckes, P. “Solar Photolysis Kinetics of Disinfection Byproducts”, Water Research, 44:11:3401-3409 (2010).
  31. Kimbrough, D., Boulos, J., Surawanvijit, S., Westerhoff, P., An, H., Suffet, I.H., Dunahee, N. “Practical Studies of the Electrolysis and Volatilization of the Bromide from Drinking Water to Mimimize Bromate Production by Ozonation, Ozone Science and Engineering, 34:269-279 (DOI:10.1080/01919512.2012.692277) (2012)
  32. Chiu, C-A, Westerhoff, P., Ghosh, A. “GAC Removal of Organic Nitrogen and Other DBP Precursors”, J. American Water Works Assoc. 104:7:41-42 and E406-E415 (2012)
  33. Krasner S., Mitch, W., Dotson, A., Westerhoff, P. “Formation and Control of Emerging C- and N-DBPs in Drinking Water” J. American Water Works Association (accepted August 2012)
  34. Sharif, F., Wang, J., Westerhoff, P. “Transformations in bulk and trace organics during ozonation of wastewater”, Ozone Science & Engineering, 34:1:26-31 (2012)
  35. Hanigan, D., Zhang, J., Herckes, P., Kranser, S.W., Chen, C., Westerhoff “Adsorption of N-Nitrosodimethylamine Precursors by Powdered and Granular Activated Carbon”, Environmental Science and Technology,  46:12630-12639 (2012)
  36. Yang, X., Shang, C., Shen. Q., Chen, B., Westerhoff, P., Peng, J., Guo, W. “Nitrogen origins and the role of ozonation in the formation of haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes in chlorine water treatment”, Environmental Science and Technology, 46:23: 12832-12838 (2012)
  37. Krasner, SW, Mitch, WA, McCurry, DL, Westerhoff, P, Hanigan, D. “Formation, Precursors, Control, and Occurrence of Nitrosamines in Drinking Water: A Review”, Water Research (accepted April 2013)
  38. Barry, M., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Promoting hydroxyl radical production during ozonation of municipal wastewater”, Ozone Sci. and Engineering, 36:3:229-237 (2014)
  39. Barry, M.C., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Membrane Fouling by Vesicles and Prevention through Ozonation” Environmental Science and Technology, 48:13:7349 (2014)
  40. Hanigan, D., Zhang, J., Herckes, P., Zhu, E., Krasner, S., Westerhoff, P. “Contribution and Removal of Watershed and Cationic Polymer N-nitrosodimethylamine Precursors”, J. American Water Works Association, 107:3:E152-E163 (2015)
  41. An, D., Westerhoff, P., Zheng, M., Wu, M., Yang, Y., Chiu, C. “UV-activated Persulfate Oxidation and Regeneration of NOM-Saturated Granular Activated Carbon” Water Research, 73:304-310 (2015)
  42. Hanigan, D., Thurman, E.M., Ferrer, I, Zhao, Y., Andrews, S., Zhang, J., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P.   “Methadone Contributes to N-nitrosodimethylamine Formation in Surface Waters and Wastewaters during Chloramination”, Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 2: 151-157 (2015)
  43. Liao, X., Chen, C., Xie, S., Hanigan, D., Wang, J., Zhang, X., Westerhoff, P., Krasner, S.W. “Nitrosamine Precursor Removal by BAC: Adsorption versus Biotreatment Case Study”, Journal American Water Works Association,, 107:9:90, E454-E463 (2015)
  44. Gan, W., Bond, T., Yang, X., Westerhoff, P., “Role of chlorine dioxide in NDMA formation from oxidation of model amines”, Environmental Science and Technology, 49:19:11429-11437 (2015)
  45. Zhang, J., Hanigan, D., Westerhoff, P., Herckes, P. “N-Nitrosamine Formation Kinetics in Wastewater Effluents and Surface Waters”, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology DOI: 10.1039/C5EW00234F (2016)
  46. Chen, T., Yavuz, B.M., Delgado, A.G., Proctor, A.J., Ortiz, J.M., Zuo, Y., Westerhoff, P., Krajmalnik-Brown, R., Rittmann, B.E. “Ozone enhances the bioavailability of residual petroleum hydrocarbons in soil”, J. Environmental Engineering and Science, 11:1:7-17 (2016)
  47. Hanigan, D., Liao, X., Zhang, J., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “Sorption and Desorption of Organic Matter on Solid-phase Extraction Media to Isolate and Identify N-nitrosodimethylamine Precursors”, J. Separation Science, 39:14: 2796–2805 (2016)
  48. Hanigan, D., Ferrer, I., Thurman, M., Herckes, P., Westerhoff, P. “LC/QTOF-MS Fragmentation of N-nitrosodimethylamine Precursors in Drinking Water Supplies is Predictable and Aids Their Identification”, Hazardous Materials (in-press April 2016)
  49. Apul, O., Dahlen, P., Delgado, A.G., Sharif, F., Westerhoff, P. “Treatment of Heavy, Long-Chain Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Impacted Soils using Chemical Oxidation”, ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering (accepted March 2016)
  50. Roback, S., Ferrer, I., Thurman, E.M., Ishida, K.P., Plumlee, M.H., Poustie, A., Westerhoff, P., Hannigan, D. “Non-target mass spectrometry analysis of NDMA precursors in advanced treatment for potable reuse” Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, 4:1944-1955 (2018)
  51. An, D., Chen, Y., Gu, B., Westerhoff, P., Hanigan, D., Herckes, P., Fischer, N., Donovan, S., Croue, J., Atkinson, A., “Lower Molecular Weight Fractions of PolyDADMAC Coagulants Disproportionately Contribute to N-nitrosodimethylamine Formation during Water Treatment” Water Research, 150:466-472 (2019)
  52. Fischer, N., Ghosh, A., Talabi, B., Seidel, C., Westerhoff, P. “Chlorine Addition Prior to Granular Activated Carbon Contactors Improves Trihalomethane Control”, Journal AWWA Water Science , 1:1:E1119, 1-10 (2019)
  53. Gan, W., Huang, S., Ge, Y., Bond, T., Westerhoff, P., Zhai, J., Yang, X. “Chlorite formation during ClO2 oxidation of model compounds having various functional groups and humic substances”, Water Research, 159:348-357 (2019)
  54. Sharma, N., Karanfil, T., Westerhoff, P. “Historical and Future Needs for Geospatial Iodide Occurrence in Surface and Groundwaters of the United States of America” Environmental Science and Technologies Letters, 6:7:379-388, DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.9b00278 (2019)

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Nitrate & Other Oxy-Anions

  1. “Nitrate removal from groundwater by cyanobacteria: quantitative assessment of factors influencing nitrate uptake” (2000) Q. Hu, P. Westerhoff, W. Vermaas, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66:1:133-139.
  2. “Reduction of nitrate, bromate, and chlorate by zero valent iron (Fe-0)”, Westerhoff P, Journal of Environmental Engineering – ASCE, 129 :1:10-16 (2003).
  3. “Nitrate removal by zero valent iron in packed columns”, P. Westerhoff and J. James, Water Research, 37:8:1818-1830 (2003).
  4. “Intraparticle diffusion and adsorption of arsenate onto granular ferric hydroxide (GFH)”, Mohammad Badruzzaman, Paul K. Westerhoff, Detlef Knappe Water Research, 38:18:4002-4012 (2004).
  5. “Rapid small scale column tests for arsenate removal in iron oxide packed bed columns”, Paul Westerhoff, David Highfield, Mohammad Badruzzaman, Yeomin Yoon, ASCE Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131:2:262-271 (2005).
  6. “Arsenic adsorptive media technology selection strategies”, Westerhoff, P., DeHaan, M., Martindale, A., Badruzzaman, M., Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 41:2:171-184 (2006)
  7. “Detection of arsenic in groundwater using a surface plasmon resonance sensor”, Erica S. Forzani, Kyle Foley, Paul Westerhoff and Nongjian Tao, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical  123:1:82- 88 (2007)
  8. “Vanadium removal by metal (hydr)oxide adsorbents”, Naeem, A., Westerhoff, P., and Mustafa, S. Water Research, 41:7:1596-1602 (2007)
  9. Antimony Leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) Plastic Used For Bottled Drinking Water”, Paul Westerhoff, Panjai Prapaipong, Everett Shock, Alice Hillaireau, Water Research, 42:3:551-556 (2008)
  10. Arsenate Removal by Iron (Hydr)Oxide Modified Granulated Activated Carbon: Modeling Arsenate Breakthrough with the Pore Surface Diffusion Model, Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. Crittenden, J. Separation Science and Technology, 43:11,3154-3167 (2008)
  11. Effect of synthesis conditions on nano-iron (hydr)oxide impregnated granulated activated carbon, K.Hristovski, P. Westerhoff, T. Moller, P. Sylvester, Chemical Engineering Journal, 146:237-243 (2009).
  12. Hristovski, K., Nguyen, H., Westerhoff, P. Removal of arsenate and 17α- ethinyl estradiol (EE2) by iron (hydr)oxide modified activated carbon fibers, J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A. Vol. A44, No.4, 354-361 (2009).
  13. Doudrick, K.M., MonzónO., Mangonon, A., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Nitrate Reduction in Water Using Commercial Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysts (P25, P90, and Hombikat UV100)”, ASCE J. Environmental Engineering, 138:8:852-861 (2012)
  14. Yang, T., Doudrick, K., Westerhoff, P. “Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate using titanium dioxide for regeneration of ion exchange brine”, Water Research, 47:3:1299-1307 (2013)
  15. Doudrick, K., Yang, T., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Photocatalytic nitrate reduction in water: Managing the hole scavenger and reaction by-product selectivity”, Applied Catalysis B 136-137:40-47 (2013)
  16. Gifford, M., Liu, J., Rittmann, B.E., Vannela, R, Westerhoff, P. “Phosphorus Recovery from Microbial Biofuel Residual Using Microwave Peroxide Digestion and Anion Exchange” Water Research, 70:130-137 (2015)
  17. Stancl, H.O., Hristovski, K., Westerhoff, P. “Hexavalent Chromium Removal Using UV-TiO2/Ceramic Membrane Reactor”, Environmental Engineering Science, 32:8:676-683 (2015)
  18. Mayer, B., Baker, L., Boyer, T., Drechsel, P., Gifford, J., Hanjra, M., Parameswaran, P., Stolzfus, J.,Westerhoff, P., Rittmann, B. “Total Value of Phosphorous Recovery”, Environmental Science and Technology, 50 (13), pp 6606–6620 (2016)
  19. Li, M., Liu, J., Zhou, Q., Gifford, M., Westerhoff, P. “Effects of pH, soluble organic materials, and hydraulic loading rates on orthophosphate recovery from organic wastes using ion exchange”, Journal of Cleaner Production, 217:127-133 (2019)

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Wastewater Reuse & Additional Sustainability Research


  1. Westerhoff, P., Hu, Q., Esparza-Soto, M., Vermaas, W. Growth Parameters of Microalgae Tolerant to High Levels of Carbon Dioxide in Batch and Continuous-flow Photobioreactors, Environmental Technology, 31:5:523 (2010)
  2. Gartin, M., Crona, B., Wutich, A., Westerhoff, P. Urban Ethnohydrology: Cultural Knowledge of Water Quality and Water Management in a Desert City, Ecology and Society (Special Feature: Mental models in human – environment interactions: Theory, policy implications and methodological explorations), 15:4:36 (on-line) (2010)
  3. Tibaquirá, J.E., Hristovski, K.D., Westerhoff, P., Posner, J.D. “Recovery and Quality of Water Produced by Commercial Fuel Cells”, Int. Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 36:6:4022-4028 (2011)
  4. Hristovski, K., Danasekaran, B., Tibaquirá, J., E., Posner, J.D., Westerhoff, P., “Producing Drinking Water from Hydrogen Fuel Cells”, Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA, 58:5:327-335 (2009)
  5. Rittman, B., Mayer, B., Westerhoff, P., Edwards, M. “Capturing the Lost Phosphorous”, Chemosphere, 84:846-853 (2011)
  6. Juan E. Tibaquirá, J.E., Hristovski, K., Posner, J.D., Westerhoff, P.  “Water quality and yield from polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells”, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (DOI information: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.07.055)
  7. Rice, J. and Westerhoff, P. “Spatial and Temporal Variation in De Facto Wastewater Reuse in Drinking Water Systems across the USA”, Environmental Science and Technology, 49:982-989 (2015)
  8. Hanigan, D., Zhang, J., Herckes, P., Zhu, E., Krasner, S., Westerhoff, P. “Contribution and Removal of Watershed and Cationic Polymer N-nitrosodimethylamine Precursors”, J. American Water Works Association, 107:3:E152-E163 (2015)
  9. Gifford, M., Liu, J., Rittmann, B.E., Vannela, R, Westerhoff, P. “Phosphorus Recovery from Microbial Biofuel Residual Using Microwave Peroxide Digestion and Anion Exchange” Water Research, 70:130-137 (2015)
  10. Westerhoff, P., Lee, S., Yang, Y., Gordon, G., Hristovski, K., Halden, R., Herckes, P. “Characterization, Recovery Opportunities, and Valuation of Metals in Municipal Sludges from U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants Nationwide” Environmental Science and Technology, 49 (16), 9479-9488, DOI: 10.1021/es505329q (2015)
  11. Rice, J., Via, S., Westerhoff, P. “Extent and Impacts of Unplanned Wastewater Reuse in U.S. Rivers” Journal American Water Works Association, 107:11:93 10.5942/jawwa.2015.107.0178 (2015)
  12. Mascaro, G., White, D.D., Westerhoff, P., Bliss, N. Performance of the CORDEX-Africa regional climate simulations in representing the hydrological cycle of the Niger River basin” Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 120:24:12425-12444 (2015)
  13. Rice, J., Wutich, A., White, D.D., Westerhoff, P. “Comparing Actual De Facto Wastewater Reuse and its Public Acceptability: A Three City Case Study”, Sustainable Cities and Society, DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2016.06.007 (available on-line June 2016)
  14. Mayer, B., Baker, L., Boyer, T., Drechsel, P., Gifford, J., Hanjra, M., Parameswaran, P., Stolzfus, J., Westerhoff, P., Rittmann, B. “Total Value of Phosphorous Recovery”, Environmental Science and Technology, 50 (13), pp 6606–6620 (2016)
  15. Mulchandani, A. and Westerhoff, P. “Recovery Opportunities for Metals and Energy from Sewage Sludges” Bioresource Technology (accepted March 2016)
  16. Barber, L.B., Rapp, J.L., Kandel, C., Keefe, S.H., Rice, J., Westerhoff, P., Bertolatus, D.W., Vajda, A.M. “Integrated assessment of wastewater reuse, exposure risk, and fish endocrine disruption in the Shenandoah River Watershed”, Environmental Science and Technology, 53:3429-3440 (2019)
  17. Westerhoff, P., Boyer, T., Linden, K. “Emerging Water Technologies: Global Pressures Force Innovation toward Drinking Water Availability and Quality”, Accounts of Chemical Research, 52:1146-1147 (2019)
  18. Wang, Z., Nguyen, T., Westerhoff, P. “Food-Energy-Water Analysis at Spatial Scales for Districts in the Yangtze River Basin (China)”, Environmental Engineering Science, 36:7:789-797 (2019)
  19. Alexandratos, S.P., Barak, N., Bauer, D., Davidson, F.T., Gibney, B.R., Hubbard, S.S., Taft, H.L., Westerhoff, P. “Sustaining Water Resources: Environmental and Economic Impact”, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 7:2879-2888 (2019)